Biosecurity is a word that has often been associated with disinfectant-soaked straw and endless welly and tyre washing. In reality it is a simple management system to reduce the risk of infectious diseases being introduced into, and spreading through a herd, thereby saving time and money.
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Coccidia are single celled protozoal organisms of the genus Eimeria. They have a complex life cycle involving both asexual and sexual reproduction. Disease due to damage to the intestinal mucosa can present in a variety of ways depending on factors including the age of the animal, its immune status and the level of challenge.
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Bovine Digital Dermatitis (BDD) is a common cause of infectious lameness worldwide.
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Before pasteurisation of milk (1935) and compulsory testing (1950) bovine TB (bTB) was a recognised cause of death in humans. In cattle, emaciation due to lung disease was common. The testing programme reduced the incidence of disease in cattle to very low levels by the late 1970s, but there remained a persistent level of disease in the South West.
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Managing reproduction effectively to achieve optimum fertility is essential to the running of a profitable cattle enterprise.
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BVD (Bovine Viral Diarrhoea) is a complicated virus with a misleading name – diarrhoea is not that commonly seen in infected cows and diarrhoea is certainly not the reason that this disease costs the UK cattle industries an estimated £50-75m per year.
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Respiratory disease in calves is an interaction between the environment, the immunity of the calf and the various infectious agents involved. The most important agents are Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR), Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV), Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, Histophilus somni and Parainfluenza-3 Virus (PI3).
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Calf scour is a frustratingly common disease experienced on the majority of cattle farms in the UK and around the world. However control and prevention of this costly disease is very much within all of our reaches. With a critical eye, experienced input and meticulous attention to detail, this disease can be successfully reduced and even eliminated from our farms.
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|CampylobacterCampylobacter foetus venerealis is one of the many potential causes of bovine infertility and abortions. It is transmitted from cow to bull to cow at serving.Download (Approx 1404Kb)|
|Colostrum ManagementColostrum is the fuel of life and making sure your calves get enough is the cornerstone to all successful calf rearing enterprises.Download (Approx 411Kb)|
|Dairy Cow LamenessLameness of the foot – part of the triad of troubles that contribute most to dairy cattle disease, along with mastitis and infertility.Download (Approx 315Kb)|
|Embryo TransferIt takes four to six months for the eggs in a cow’s ovaries to grow to their ovulatory state. Management of the cow during this period is critical in determining their ability to yield transferable embryos that become established pregnancies.Download (Approx 1170Kb)|
|Environmental MastitisEnvironmental mastitis is mastitis that is derived from the environment in which the cow lives. The condition can be severe and prevention aimed at keeping the cow and her environment as clean and dry as possible is paramount.Download (Approx 239Kb)|
|Examination of the breeding ramYour ram is half the solution to getting a high percentage of ewes in lamb quickly to give a tight lambing period and help get lambs away early. He may also have cost a lot of money in the hope of either improving the genetics of the flock or producing better lambs for sale. However, too often his ability to mate ewes and get them in lamb is taken for granted, often until it is too late and ewes are returning. A pre-breeding exam can rule out common problems and may indicate the need for collecting and testing a sample of semen to confirm fertility.Download (Approx 415Kb)|
|Infectious Bovine RhinotracheitisIBR is the most obvious clinical disease associated with infection by Bovine Herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). IBR is a disease of the upper respiratory tract which varies in severity, depending on the strain of virus involved and other factors which may influence the immune status of the animal. In severe cases, damage to the upper airways may lead to pneumonia and sometimes death. BoHV-1 infection has also been associated with infertility, abortion, high temperatures and milk drop.Download (Approx 639Kb)|
|Infertility Problems in Dairy HerdsInfertility issues within dairy herds can be subtle, complex and costly. Losses per cow per day could be £2 – £4.50 depending on the management system. However the scope for improvement is great with farmer and vet partnership having the potential to improve herd fertility rates over time.Download (Approx 185Kb)|
|Johnes DiseaseJohne’s disease is a chronic disease which progressively damages the intestines and after a period of scouring and weight loss, ultimately results in the animal’s death. It causes huge economic loss to the national cattle industry and yet its presence goes unrecognised in many herds. Johne’s disease is a notifiable disease within Northern Ireland.Download (Approx 192Kb)|
|Liver Fluke in CattleFluke infection has been recognised for generations, but evolving problems in cattle demand we look afresh at how liver fluke might be undermining herd performance. Over the past years there has been an alarming increase in the incidence of liver fluke. This has coincided with a greater geographic distribution beyond the traditional at-risk, high rainfall areas.Download (Approx 200Kb)|
|Managing the Periparturient CowThe time immediately around calving (periparturient period) is the most critical part of a cow’s year for many health and production reasons.Download (Approx 1521Kb)|
|Metabolic DiseasePerhaps the most common and significant neurological disorder, metabolic disease tends to affect adult sheep, particularly around lambing time.Download (Approx 1062Kb)|
|Milk Fever in CattleThe average milk yield for the UK national herd has increased by 30% over the last 25 years, and so the demands of lactation now make it extremely difficult for the dairy cow to maintain blood calcium concentrations around calving. Consequently, milk fever has become an important production disease, with an average annual incidence of 4-9% in the UK, and incidences of 60-70% not unknown.Download (Approx 242Kb)|
|Minimizing Calving DifficultiesCalving difficulties (dystocia) contribute heavily to production losses. The obvious ones are due to death at, or soon after calving, but studies from the USA have shown that calves which experience difficult births, are four times more likely to be born dead or die within the first 24 hours of life compared to those born without difficulty.Download (Approx 219Kb)|
|Oestrus DetectionThe cow has a 21 day oestrus cycle but this can vary between 18 and 24 days. Heifers will begin cycling at the onset of puberty and will continue to cycle until they are in calf. The onset of puberty can be affected by various factors such as breed, nutrition, growth rate and disease. After calving cows will begin to cycle after 20 to 30 days. This may be extended in high yielding cows or those affected by disease post calving.Download (Approx 351Kb)|
|Ovine AbortionAbortion in sheep is common, but it should not be thought of as inevitable. There are excellent vaccines for the commonest causes of abortion and some of the other causes have factors that can be reduced.Download (Approx 432Kb)|
|Parasitic Bronchitis in CattleLungworm, Husk, Hoose, Parasitic Bronchitis: there are many names for the disease caused by the nematode worm Dictyocaulus viviparous. Infective larvae on pasture are ingested, migrate to the lungs and enter the main airways. The presence of large numbers of worms obstructing the airways causes the symptoms in affected cattle. The parasite’s lifecycle is similar to that of gut roundworms and most cases occur in late summer / autumn.Download (Approx 2826Kb)|
|SchmallenbergSchmallenberg virus was first detected in August 2011 within Germany, spreading to the Netherlands, Belgium and now the UK.Download (Approx 160Kb)|
|Sheep LamenessFor many UK flocks, lameness is an endemic problem and prevalence has probably increased following the change in weather patterns to mild winters and wet summers.Download (Approx 1185Kb)|
|Summer MastitisBritish summer weather may be unpredictable but summer mastitis certainly isn’t. It is a disease that changes little over the years, affecting the same farms year after year and often just certain fields within those holdings.Download (Approx 859Kb)|
|Teat HealthOne of the key challenges for vets is to help farmers to keep cell counts low and to avoid costly cases of mastitis. Finding out which bacteria are involved and then tackling the cows that are infected is routine work, the real challenge is in helping to prevent udder infections in the first place.Download (Approx 206Kb)|
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